DSD official thread Darkshine's Designs. Old page 2003-2015

OK this is DSD we provide crate engines (post 7) and are a medium sized modern Australian manufacturer. We build high quality family sports saloons and also specialize in kei car engineering. Darksinhes collect classic car and can be found in page 8

Key players at DSD that you will need to become familiar with.

Name: Darkshine’s (real name kept hidden to protect the interest’s of the company)
DOB: 05/04/1985
Country of Birth: Australia
Darkshine’s became CEO simply by good fortune. When he finished high school in 2002 it was become known to him that when he was born he had inherited many millions of G.B.P which over the years had incurred a substantial amount of interest. (the reason Darkshine’s does not reveal his identity is that no other members of his family received a cent and he would like to keep it that way and live a relatively simple life.)
Now at the time the money was still in G.B.P and after almost doubling the original amount it was converted to A.U dollars to the sum of $529,149,732.47. A proverbial shit load of cash!

Darkshine’s was always a car guy and had been drag racing since well before puberty so it came as no real surprise when he decided to invest in cars. Originally playing with the idea of purchasing some of the rarest muscle cars and the most unusual European GT’s, but it was in his blood to tinker, to race and to DRIVE! So DSD was conceived. The bastard love child of ANZhotrods, Darkshine’s purchased the failing companies warehouses sold the machinery and repainted, voila DSD was born!

Now Darkshine’s keeps his private life well hidden so not to much is known about it.
We do know that he is an insomniac and it can play havoc in his work life, with him falling asleep in the middle of board meetings on average 50% of the time.
He loves to drag race and still to this day competes in super street under his real name.
He has a fondness of certain fish!?
And finally he doesn’t get mad…ever.

Cars Owned:
1946 ADCR Lusso
1951 Monolith Kombi
1956 Monolith N series 380P diesel
1964 Harris Nuthatch 2.0 Coupe
1969 Meliora Andron LM #002
1970 Smooth Wolf TA
1970 Saminda CZ5
1972 Erin Lera 200SL
1973 ford Falcon XB GT coupe (DSD/RPG modified)
1982 Airborne Persephone
2004 DSD Saratoga D model
2013 DSD Irukandji DS #0085

Head Of Staff
Name:Marcin Zmianski A.K.A The Boss
Country of Birth: Poland
Marcin was Darkshine’s first employee, the two met while Marcin was backpacking in Australia and stayed with Darkshine’s family when he was younger. Marcin is an Engineer by trade and formally worked for the largest manufacturer of Engines and Turbines in Poland. When Darkshine’s made the decision to build a car company Marcin was the first to back him up leaving his job and home country to help establish DSD. By the end of 2003 Marcin had the machinery up and running, the first employee’s assigned their roles and had finished the engineering behind DSD first production vehicle the SARATOGA.

Now Marcin is a Pol so he has some different…lets call them quirks, than most of DSD’s employee’s and one of them drive’s the other big-wigs at DSD mad and that’s when he eats rydze mushrooms. They are horrendous and the smell waft’s thru the offices and makes people sick.
Marcin is often simply know as the Boss, he doesn’t fuck around with his word’s or intent and has a on/off temper that annihilates whoever is on the receiving end.

Marcin never married as it is not yet legal in Australia for two men to marry each other. Marcin’s partner incidentally is our engine divisions head of staff. However he loves to surf (pity that DSD is located in central south QLD) he love’s a smoke (and not just the legal type) and he love’s his fishing. Quite often he will be found down by the river catching dewfish an Australian Catfish that is shaped like an eel.

Cars Owned:
2007 DSD Cassowary DR6 TURBO

2016 Maesima Avellca ST-Z

Engine Division head:
Name: Adam Delaney A.K.A Puncy Pom
DOB: 1969
Country of Birth: UK
Adam Delaney was brought aboard before the end of 2003 to put the designs and maths from the page to raw iron. Before joining DSD Adam was a head mechanic for koenigsegg and had a hand in procuring the Ford modular v8’s that were used in their vehicles. He lives and breathes v8 engine’s and behind Darkshine’s is the driving force behind DSD’s v8 only policies. When on a lathe or operating the CNC machinery he is in his element and there is no better v8 designer in the Automation fraternity.

Adam has always been openly queer and will quite often joke that he should be the poster girl for DSD. He has a heart of gold and has a tendency to bring stray pets in to the office to try and re-home them. One of the only people Darkshine’s clashes with personality wise as Adam is completely against hunting and constantly informs Darkshine’s how unfair and cruel it is. He does however love to fish which causes the classic argument between himself and the CEO on whether fish can feel pain or not and whether fishing is the same as hunting.

A true English gentleman his accent is very southern Britain and we often find him hard to understand. Adam’s biggest downfall is like his partner Marcin he enjoy;s a smoke and constantly must have his office monitored as he smokes inside and takes the batteries from the smoke alarms.

Cars Owned:
2005 DSD Saratoga E (converted to apply with A.D.R Standards)
2008 DSD Cassowary 8
Erin and ErinSport - Historical Thread ['62 Erin Ghaleda]
2016 Erin Nardella Xworks Special

Head of Marketing
Name: Elise Dontwashinriver A.K.A: B.A [inside joke stands for big arse, but Elise thinks it means Bollywood Angel]"
Country of Birth:India
Elise is a unit. “hired” in 2004 (she had a obsession with Marcin and would come into the office every few days asking for a job) Marcin finally gave in as a marketing head was needed and who better than a woman to do it! For the first month she simply followed Marcin around like a bad smell, when it was finally revealed that Marcin was gay Elise’s demeanor changed very quickly. No longer was she the helpful young girl smiling and laughing with everybody. She was a Devil Woman!

Now Elise is large, we mean really large, she has one of those body that from the belly up is a size 8 but from the hips down is closer to a 30 (we don;t know clothes sizes just guessing what the largest is) When she is in a rush (always) she will cannonball as we call it down the hallways squashing anyone who was unfortunate enough to be in her way.

Now married with 16 children the only personal information we have is that she drink’s alot at the x-mas party and still has a thing for Marcin.

Cars Owned:
2005 DSD Saratoga B
2013 Griffin DL6

Tame Racing Drivers
Name: Tim and Jim icantsaysix (twins)
D.O.B: 06/09/1987
Country of Birth: New Zealand
Tim and Jim are DSD’s semi-tame racing drivers. These two were hired after the ANZhotrods fiasco finally cleared over an allowed them to break their contracts. With some success in Australian touring cars it was the New Zealand amateur rally championships and races that these two truly cut their teeth on. Having two drivers allows DSD to split up their roles and get two sets of data sets from two very different styles of driving. Tim focuses on everyday usage and highway testing while Jim run’s the cars over the test tracks.

Tim and Jim are twins, however they are quite different. Tim is brash, loud and somewhat obnoxious. Jim on the other hand speaks only when spoken to is very polite and laid back.
The two were born and raised in new Zealand sheep country close to where the Footrot flats cartoons were said to be based on. Both are very camera shy and hide away from the media allowing B.A to deal with the public.

Tim and Jim are not married, they are a pair of Kiwi bachelors living in Australia and most days of the week a new pair of panties is placed on the back wall of the employee parking lot.( a habit Darkshine’s abhors) Both are quite large drinkers and have often said if they were not professional drivers they would be pissed 24/7.

Cars Owned:
1982 Airbore Persephone (DSD modified drift car)

Head of Finance’s
Name: Margaret Ipinchpennys
D.O.B: 09/27/1987
Country of Birth: United States of America
Marg was hired later than the other big wigs at DSD, and was not brought into the company until 2007. Before coming to DSD and Australia Marg owned and operated a cannabis dispensary in Colorado and was hugely successful. She was introduced to Darkshine’s after she purchased a late model SARATOGA and constantly complained to the Dealer Principal of the dealership she purchased it from. The complaints got to the point where she had Darkshine’s home number and would call 2-3 times a week. So in the end Darkshine’s challenged her to do a better job than he was. And she did, as it was only after Marg was hired that DSD made a small profit for the finacial year.

Marg was the sole driver force behind DSD’s greatest success story the Irukandji Kei car.

Marg married a well known NRL player shortly after arriving in Australia and used her position to establish herself as a Networking Diva and has the title of the Australian Kardashian. Constantly in magazines and on television Marg and Elise have a large rivalry in house and clash quite often.

Cars Owned:
2005 DSD Saratoga D model (lemon)
2006 DSD Irukandji (AU)
2011 Bogliq GL

All owned cars where purchased after the team member joined DSD with the exception of Margaret Ipinchpennys 2005 Saratoga D
History behind DSD : to be written

Current history of DSD: to be written


reserved for saratoga model

The SARATOGA was the first car designed and produced by DSD, And was produced from 2004-2007 before being re-introduced in 2011 due to high demand (only applies to RPG Saratoga and Anniversary models).
The brief was a simple one coming from Darkshine’s himself.

“The first car needs to be cheap fun, reliable with 4 seats and doors, it must have a economical v8 and finally it must hark back do the glory day’s of Australian muscle cars and be styled as such”

The Boss

“Ok we can work with that but it will have a large displacement straight 6 as an option.”


“Get fucked I said from day one that we would only make v8’s!”

Puncy Pom

“Yeah hang-on I have done no work towards a 6 from this company only the Crate 8’s and our in-house DSD8. Are trying to tell me I now have to produce the DSD8 in our lil factory and a new design, engineer and produce a completely different engine family? Get Fuck’d”

The Boss

“Stop speaking to me like I am a piece of shite! Darkshine’s when you hired me you did so because I know the industry I know how to be successful Dammit! And I am telling the two of you we need a 6!”

(keep in mind at this stage B.A had not yet been formerly hired)


“Now look you lot I am a sexy young girl and I must say I would rather a 6 to a 8 it just seams much more womanly to me to have 6. And besides we can make it the entry model with the least amount of power no-one buys the entry models.”


“You two have talked this through already haven’t you? Fine we can do a six but it must be turbocharged and slower than the v8. I will not do what my beloved Ford did and make a turbo 6 that annihilates the factory v8! NEVER!”

So with that it was also decided that DSD would produce a straight 6 engine.

The SARATOGA series had the model names designated in a Alphabetical order so with a total of 5 trims with 4 engine options a convertible option and a Drag ready option.
Designed around a Ford spec v8 super-car space chassis made from AHS steel with a front mounted longitudinal engine double wishbone up the front and a semi-trailing arm setup in the rear.
The first model produced by DSD the body was completely hand made from fiberglass thanks to a well known Italian coach-maker (who was poached by DSD) as steel presses had not yet been purchased (DSD wished to see whether the cars would be popular before investing the last of the companies money into the new presses).

DSD A Model Chassis Shown
The styling of the cars is pure Darkshine’s and the body and trims were designed by himself thanks to the wonderful Automation program rather then using clay and than uploading the images to computers like most manufacturers.
One of the most unique features is the rear doors which were blatantly stolen from the Mazda RX8.
They operate in a similar fashion being suicide doors however unlike the RX8 the door handle is on the outside and can be opened without opening the front door.

Also seen in the above photograph is the l.e.d side indicators and the active engine bay/brake extractor vents.
The Front and rear ends of the cars were designed to be mirror images of each other and in what would become DSD’s fashion were kept to a minimalist styling with everything you see have a function and job to do rather than just look pretty.

Every model of SARATOGA is RWD (with the exception of the E MODEL) only and 5 colours are available however special orders can be selected from any paint color the customer wishes (so long as it is in the House of Kolour catalog)
Candy Blood Orange

Dark Knight Black

DSD Official Blue

FORD Phantom

DSD Candy White


Now looking at the individual trims we will start with the entry level A MODEL.

The A model is designed as a simple to use economical replacement to the standard 4 door offerings here in Australia. Powered by 5.8L version of the DSD8 which produces 292hp/443Nm with a 5sp manual gearbox placing the power to the ground.
Fitted as standard equipment is a set of 18" Alloy wheels with 205/45R18 and 185/50R18 hard wearing tyres. The standard brakes which are used across the range are 4 piston 300mm vented fronts with 3 piston 285mm solid rears.Again across the range is our time spent on the Aero of these body and all come with fully clad under-bodies with active cooling and are made to be as slippery as possible.
The A model is fitted with 4 of DSD’s standard seats as always trimmed in Red Stag Hides and the company decided to use a JVC CD player with blue tooth and a 6.1 set of FOCAL speakers.
Safety standards are important a DSD and a standard 90’s setup was chosen to be adequate for the models needs. We include all driver assist’s in this model however they can not be changed or turned off. The suspension is comfort based and we didn’t re-create the wheel here a set of standard gas mono shocks and springs with passive sway-bars is more than adequate for an everyday school run or trip to the shops.
After all is said and done DSD marketed this model for $36999 AUD like all its models at a 60% markup after including factory cost’s.
The A MODEL was only available in Australia and New Zealand.

Next in the line-up was the B MODEL.

The B MODEL i s the 6 cylinder version. Why was it not the “entry model”? Because Darkshine’s didn’t want the 6 to be designated an A that was for the V8.
Chassis and exterior wise the B MODEL is exactly the same as the A just with a 6 instead of the 8. The 6 was not a bad engine in fact it was quite surprising just how well it performed with Darkshine’s limiting the power to just 200hp.
Again brakes/gearbox/interior and suspension are carried over from the A MODEL the only difference is that 6 cylinder motor and the price retailing at only $25999 A.U.D.
The B Model was available in the Australian, New Zealand, Japanese, Korean and South Asian markets.


The C MODEL was essentially an A MODEL with the roof cut off. There are however some key differences between the two. While both use the 5,8L DSD8 the C Model uses a ZF 6sp automatic gearbox and the body has had slightly more fiberglass used throughout to keep the whole thing from flexing apart.
Retailing at $38999 and only available in the Australian and European markets.

Now we come to the D MODEL Darkshine’s personal favorite

The D MODEL was designed as a direct competitor for HSV, FPV and TRD in Australia.
The crowning jewel of the D MODEL is the 6.9L version of the DSD8 producing a whopping 450hp/614Nm on pump gas.The exhaust was also special using a stainless steel twin 2.25" system that let the world know you were driving a man’s car. The car uses a 6sp tr56 and an Eaton geared LSD and can do 0-100km/h in 5.5 seconds with a top speed of 314KM/H (limited to 280km/h in Australian market)
Standard equipment include 20" Magnesium wheel with 245/30R20 and 275/30r20 medium compound road racing tyres. Brakes are 2 piston 395mm vented fronts with 1 piston 260mm vented rears. The body work is also slightly different to the other model in that it includes a unique front bumper and bonnet and a different rear spoiler.

A 2 seat sports interior is used in this model as well as up graded safety features the model also uses progressive springs with gas mono shocks and adjustable sway-bars.
Retailing at $39999 A.U.D and available to the Australian, New Zealand and North American markets only.

And finally we come to the E MODEL ( E for Extreme)

Now this model is not street legal in Australia (U.S is fine) it is however a factory presented Super Street competitor.
Only available in matte DSD official Blue
A carbon fiber bonnet and front clip come standard.
Powered by a tunnel rammed 8.1L DSD8 producing 639hp/794Nm

Keen reader will note that there are driveshaft in the above picture
That’s right this monster is constant AWD. We fitted a tricked up c6 4sp Automatic gearbox with a CRT transfer case from A.N.Z.M.C a voila AWD.
A electronic controlled LSD allows the owner to program diff ratio’ss to suit there tyres or track.
The vehicle come’s with a range of tyre options but is generally suited to 10.5 racing.
It’s bare on the inside with the two seats as mandated and a funny car legal rollcage. We use special hydro-pneumatic suspension that is an Industry secret on how it work’s.
The car easily run’s 10.50 quarters.
Available by special order Worldwide for $50000

juliusgraham5485 - DSD SARATOGA.zip (186.6 KB)


reserved for cassowary car


IN 2006 a new design came forth from B.A who completely designed the new CASSOWARY herself.
Designed as the next evolution of the SARATOGA the looks were certainly unique. Produced from 2007-2011 strangely the CASSOWARY was much more popular than the SARATOGA.
5 trims were made available and the DSD6 saw much more use than in it’s first iteration.
Again all vehicles were built off of a V8 supercar space-frame chassis but the bodies were now corrosion res steel thanks to the new steel presses purchased late in 2006.


The rear doors were retained however they now operate the same as RX8 no longer being able to be opened without the front doors open. The rear hatch is designed to be easy to use while stylish and unique


One of the most unique features is the centre mounted exhaust that if you are not carefull can spit a 2 foot flame onto the car behind you (only applies to DR6 turbo variety)


Again 5 colors were available
Candy Blood Orange

DR6 Turbo Shown

Dark Knight Black

DR6 Shown

Ford Phantom

Cassowary 8 Shown

DSD Official Blue

Cassowary 6 Shown

DSD Candy White

DR8 Shown

Looking at the individual trims we start with the 6 model

This was the entry model and used the new red6 engine.
Now factory fitted with a ZF 6sp Auto and a locking differential.
Unique 20" magnesium wheels are standard with 215/40R20 hard long life Federal tyres.
The brakes were carried over from the SARATOGA and are 3 piston 300mm vented front discs and 2 piston 260mm rears. The Aero technology was carried over from the SARATOGA and all models feature a fully clad underbody with active cooling.
Our standard Red deer hide seats are used as well as our Standard JVC/FOCAL stereo system.
Also standard is power steering, ABS and traction control with a higher interest vested in safety using only the highest standards now. Progressive gas mono shocks and passive swaybars are found through-out the range.
The car retailed at $25999 AUD and was available in the Australasian markets.

The 8 model was essentially the same as a 6 but with the 5.8l v8.

There were some minor differences however. The wheels were now 19" Alloys using 225/45R19 hard long life tyres as standard.The 8 model also featured active stability control.
Retailing at $28999 and available Worldwide.

Next we have the first of the higher spec DR models the DR6

The DR models were designed as a step up from the standard 6/8 models and was more sport orientated. The DR6 used the red6 220Hp engine with a 5sp AWD manual gearbox and locking differentials. Standard equipment on the DR6 were 19" Alloy wheels with 215/50R19 hard long life tyres. The brakes remained the same however more aggressive brake pads are used.
Retailing for $26999 and only available in Australia and New Zealand.

Next in the line-up was the DR6 Turbo

The DR6t was powered by the new 261Hp/295Nm 4L Blue6. In all other aspects the DR6t is a carbon copy of the DR6 but with more power.
Retailing at $29999 Available to the Australian New Zealand and European Marksts.

The final model in the line up was the top of the range DR8.

Using the 6.9L v8 producing 450Hp/614Nm attached to a 6sp manual and a geared LSD the only DR model that is RWD only. A set of 20" bead blasted magnesium wheels with 255/35R20 and 235/40R20 medium compound tyres come standard as do larger 6 piston 325mm front brakes.
A 2 seat sport based interior is fitted with all the driving aids available and are able to be turned off if need be. The suspension is unique in that it uses hydropneumatic suspension with active sway-bars.
Retailing at $34999 and available Worldwide

juliusgraham5485 - Cassowary.zip (169.6 KB)


Reserved for Irukandji

Say hello to DSD’s biggest success story the IRUKANDJI.
Named after the highly venomous and deadly Irukandji jellyfish which at only 1cm in diameter kills without being seen.

Japanese Model Shown

The Irukandji was created simply to fund Darkshine’s racing endeavors and to pay for our one offs and limited production vehicles. The car was designed to be sold in the Japanese Kei market and was a quite simple car to manufacturer. The car is engineered as a uni body ahs/partial Alloy body and chassis. Mac struts are found up front and coil solid axle rears…huh you say? The IRUKANDJI is RWD. The vehicle was available in 9 colors

Japanese Model Shown

The engine is a tiny little 4 cylinder with sizes ranging from 660cc (Japanese Market) up to 776cc for the Australian and European markets.

Finally the styling is typical DSD with multiple head lights and L.E.D taillights.

3 trims were available.

Starting with the Japanese Model. Powered by a 660cc turbo engine producing the regulated top power figure of 66Hp/86Nm.
The motor uses all Alsi construction and lightweight was an important factor. The engine is mated to a 5sp manual gearbox, 15" steel wheels come standard with 175/50R15 hard wearing tyres.
Drum brakes can be found at all 4 corners and are more than adequate for the job.
A fully clad under body and many hrs in the wind tunnel helps keep fuel consumption low.
The interior is a Basic setup with this being the first car DSD made without Red Deer hides.
All yours for $13999 only available in JAPAN

Next we have the Euro model.

The Euro model was completely the same as the Japanese model on the outside and interior wise however much stricter safety features have been used and the engine is the non-turbo 776cc producing 48Hp/68Nm.
Retailing for $13499

Finally we come to the Australian/American model.

This model is unique in that it uses the Big Bore 776cc engine with a turbocharger added producing 80HP/116Nm. Also unique is the body kit and bonnet scoop. A 6sp manual was standard as were larger 16" Alloy wheels, the front brakes now used solid discs and our standard red deer hide interior is fitted as well as power steering.
Retailing at $14999 available to Australasian Markets and North American Markets

The Irukandji DS was amonst the group of specially produced DSD 10 year anniversary editions, With a special run of 1500 Unit worldwide this was the final run of Irukanji, with the 1500 making an even 250000 units sold across the globe.
This pocket rocket was based from the best selling Japanese trim. However some changes were made to make the last of these cars truly something to be remembered by builders and bigwigs at DSD.
A brand new 6sp manual gearbox was the first change being much stronger than he original and with different ratios, a geared LSD is now used where the open diff once resided. 17" Magnesium wheels have Federal semi-slick tyres to really help grip the road even in the wet. The brakes are larger vented units and are fed cool air from the front bumper. A unique Aero kit has been installed and active cooling along with an active wing help with the body CD. A set or red deer seats are used however the rears have been removed. With our now well sorted hydropnuematic suspension setup that is fully adjustable with a socket set no computers here. Why go to all this effort in a car which is essentially a Toyota Echo? Well the DSD4 has seen the end of it’s lifespan, and to be honest something special was needed. So like the other DS 10th models the Irukanji has it’s own specially designed 4311cc v8! To try and keep the weight down a magnesium block was used with Alsi OHV heads and no VVT was installed in the run of 1500 motors.

Not your normal DSD engine this is a flat-plane high RPM engine that produces 451Hp/471Nm and a final red line of 8800RPM’s. The car on testing was capable of consistent 8.62sec 1/8 mile’s at Willowbank and 1.24.77 standing lap of Queensland raceway. Available by special order for $31599. only available in DSD CANDY WHITE

juliusgraham5485 - Irukandii.zip (178.3 KB)


In 2010 in a 3 way joint venture between Bogliq, RPG and DSD the Griffin was created.

DSD would now produce the DSD6 in the Bogliq factories tuned by Bogliq’s best and brightest engineers.
Rpg provided the new/old small block OHV v8 which DSD then modified to suit the Griffin.

The Griffin was made from lightweight albeit very cheap materials to keep weight down.
The body is a Mono body AHS chassis shell with Partial aluminum body panels.
Double wishbone Suspension is used on all four corners.
The car is designed as a higher end Family saloon so there is alot of chrome with the lower grill inspired by looking at an aircraft front on. The rear of the car is heavily inspired by the luxo barges of the 50’s and the exhaust is again designed to look like it belongs to a small aircraft. All Griffin models were available worldwide.

The entry model is the Griffin 8 which uses the RPG/DSD twin turbo 5.4L Windsor v8.
This particular engine is an all cast affair using a compound twin turbo arrangement and DI. power is capped at 300Hp while the flat torque curve at its peak produces 519Nm.
Putting this power to the ground is the German ZF 6sp automatic gearbox and a new in house designed Viscous LSD rear differential.
Wheels are standard 18" Alloys with 235 wide Hard tyres.
Standard brakes are 350mm 2 piston vented front discs with 300mm single piston vented rears.
As with all DSD products more than half of the build time with this car was getting the Aero just right in the wind tunnel with fully clad underbody and active cooling.
A standard 5 seat Red deer leather interior is fitted with DSD’s standard Focal 6.1 sound system.
We have used hydro suspension for some time in our race cars and it has now made it’s way into our road vehicles with twin tube dampers and passive swaybars.
Final on road cost is $30499.

Next in the lineup is the Griffin DL6 model.
This model contains the new DSD6 by Bogliq code named LRX42E.
A 4.2L DOHC 2 valve behemoth, the high compression engine produces 312HP at 6600RPM.
Behind this engine is an all new 5sp Sequential auto gearbox and our new Viscous LSD differential. The wheels are designed and produced by Bogliq and are 20" Alloy’s with 245/235 Medium tyres. The brakes remain the same as the entry 8 model, while slightly better rear wing geometry provides even smoother body CD numbers.
Inside we find a 5 seat Luxury interior using Santa Gertrudis Steer leather raised on Darkshines Deer Station in SE QLD Australia. A high end Sat nav is added to the Focal stereo system.
The first ever DSD vehicle to use air ride suspension which can be set to automatic or can be height regulated manually.
Retailing for $38999.

The next model is the Griffin DR8.
Where the DL6 is designed as a luxury vehicle the DR8 is plain and simple a Brute.
In 2010 DSD retooled a new version of the DSD8 the DR8 DI.
In a world where engines are getting smaller and smaller DSD has gone against the grain proving that they CAN get better fuel economy and emissions from using larger bores.
There’s no VVL/VVT magic here no 4 valve DOHC just good tuning choices and SOHC with 2 valves. The engine displaces 8.1L or 497ci while retaining a fuel efficiency of over 25%.
All this adds up to 501Hp/718Nm!
Only a manual gearbox was ever going to be used and the tremec t56 was chosen with a modified Ford 9 inch Geared LSD. 19" Magnesium wheels are shod in Soft sports 245/255 tyres. The brakes remain the same 350/300 combo however special brake pads more suited to high performance are used and as always the wind tunnel was the most important tool we used. A 4 seat sport interior is matched to the sat nav from the DL6. And our race tuned Hydro suspension is used.
Retailing for $37999

The final model was introduced in 2011 and is actually produced by DSD for Bogliq motors.
The Griffin by Leeroy (or Bogliq GL).
This is a executive estate with 5 doors.
Powered by a Leeroy version of the DSD6 this is no soccer mum wagon!
The engine displaces 3.6L code named LRX36AET however using smart turbocharger technology produces a whopping 542Hp/527Nm torque.
Behind the engine is a ZF 6sp auto gearbox and viscous LSD combo.
20" Magnesium wheels with Soft 255 tyres rotate the earth on its axis, While a set of 6 piston 355mm/ 1 piston 355mm vented disc brakes are used along side the DSD hydro suspension.
Bogliq profited by DSD’s wind tunnel and a +10 Aero package is standard.
A premium Bogliq 5 seat interior is used alongside a Bogliq Premium Dvd sound system.
All this for $37999

Buy Better Buy Bogliq.

In 2013 the 10th Anniversary model was released with a limited run of 1500 units worldwide Retailing for $38499
Featuring a new unique bodykit and it’s own 7.1L DSD8 Producing 521Hp.
Equipped standard with a new dual clutch 6sp Auto and Electronic LSD.

Wide semi slick tyres are standard on 19" magnesium wheels.
The breaks remain standard however large 4 piston calipers are now used on the front.
Inside you will find The highest quality cattle/deer leather and Bunya pine fixture.

juliusgraham5485 - Griffen.zip (211.1 KB)


The 2015 DSD Shark

In 2015 following the relative success of the Griffin and with the Irukandji in need of a replacement the Shark was born.

Designed as DSD’s answer to the growing demand for fun cheaper cars, the Shark was able to be sold at a much lower margin now that DSD was producing a moderate profit each year in the family sedan demographic.

The styling follows that of the Griffin, the front grill is designed to look like a small aircraft coming into land. The body follows the DSD standard of AHS steel mono body chassis however we did decide to use Aluminum panels, again standard to DSD is the Double wishbone suspension at each corner.

The Sonic model is the small engine build.

The Sonic is equipped with a new version of the DSD4 producing over 100hp and 10000RPM!
Behind the engine is DSD’s all new 7sp manual gearbox designed specifically for the DSD4 and DSD’s viscous LSD. Fitted as standard are 19" magnesium wheels with soft 235 rubber.
Vented discs are found at each corner with large single piston calipers.
Inside you will find 5 sporty seats trimmed in deer leather with DSD’s somewhat outdated Focal 6.1 stereo. Hydro suspension is used however we have started to play with the idea of computerized suspension so semi-active swaybars are fitted.
Retail: $19999

The other side of the coin was the Stratosphere.

The Stratosphere is an example of just how wild a hot hatch can be!
Equipped standard is the 2010 DR8 497ci v8 making over 500hp!
Mated to the engine is the ever reliable Tremec T56 and a new DSD Mechanical LSD.
20" Magnesium wheels have large soft 265mm rubber.
The brakes are large 345mm 3 piston vented units at the front and slightly smaller 3 piston units at the back. Equipped with active cooling and downforce it’s a true track warrior.
2 Red deer leather sport bucket seat reside amongst a 8 point rollcage and the old Focal 6.1 stereo. We took the suspension one step further employing Active swaybars.
Retail: $25499


----------------------In development for 2017.
The DSD Concept original body

The DSD concept car #1

And the new DSD v12 with 1L per cylinder and DAOHC


A selection of Darkshine’s personal cars

Darkshine’s XC Falcon coupe

Part of a venture between DSD and RPG in which a SARATOGA was traded for an early RPG windsor v8 in order to power the car and improve Aussie/Us relations

Powered by a 1964 RPG 283ci 6pack Windsor v8 Tuned by Darkshine’s and available as a crate engine.

A Selection Of Darkshines Car Collection

1969 Meliora Andron LM #002

This was the first Classic car Darkshine’s purchased outside of Australia

The engine removed for cleaning

<img src="/uploads/default/original/4X/9/0/6/9060d54e3989f03d3cb9ac8894c51f966b8b78c7.png" width=“450” height=“414”

1964 Harris Nuthatch 2.0 Coupe

1972 Erin Lera 200SL

Erin and ErinSport - Historical Thread ['62 Erin Ghaleda] - #2 by DeusExMackia
Erin and ErinSport - Historical Thread ['62 Erin Ghaleda] - #83 by DeusExMackia

Monolith N series 1956 380P diesel

Monolith [Vän] - #14 by Awildgermanappears

Monolith 1951 Kombi

1982 Airborne Persephone

Airborne Motor Group (Kee) (Ultimately closed and outdated) - #137 by Oskiinus

1970 Saminda CZ5

Saminda Motor Co - 2023 C+ facelift to gain significant range boost

ADCR 1946 8450 Lusso (Paint has Rusted/ Barn Find Original)

ADCR - Auto di Cacciatori-Raccoglitori

Hot Lap Challenge Winners

1970 Smooth Wolf TA

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(post withdrawn by author, will be automatically deleted in 24 hours unless flagged)

6 cylinder
The first engine to be produced and placed in a car from DSD was the DSD6 (there were fights and screaming matches Darkshine’s wanted a v8 and a v8 only but reality from The Boss and Big Arse soon took hold)

A large over-square 2valve DOHC straight 6 with a 90.0/110.0 bore and stroke.
The first iteration of this engine was simple known as a 3.9 Blue 6.
DSD’s first attempt at a VVT powered vehicle and it was ell worth the hassle and trouble. The engine in this guise only produced 200hp but instant boost response and a great push of torque negated such a small number.
Running true MPFI and a large inter-cooler helped to keep running costs down and reliability up.

In 2006 the second iteration of the DSD6 was created and released to the public in 2007 with the new CASSOWARY car.
Two new trims were created a N/a variant and a new performance oriented turbo engine.

Starting with the 4.2L naturally aspirated model. The maximum bore and stroke was used to create a high torque high economy engine. We then swapped the forged bottom end components for cheaper but still of high quality cast items. VVT runs only the intake cam as dual VVT proved to not produce the gains we were looking for. The 4.2 includes ITB Efi and is ideally suited for 91oct fuel. Matched to a 6-2-1 set of stainless steel headers designed to be used with a large bore single exhaust. This engine is known as the red6 and outputs 220hp/319Nm.

Next we have the DR6 Turbo.
A 4L performance orientated version of the origin blue 6. Inside the block is a forged crankshaft swinging H beam rods attached to Forged pistons. A much hotter set of cam’s are used compared to the original and the engine utilizes VVT on both cams. The Turbocharger was changed to a unit with a smaller turbine but larger A/R ratio’s. Carried over from the Red6 is the ITB Efi. Ideally suited to a high flow catalytic converted and large bore single exhaust this engine produces 261Hp/395Nm.

The engine family survived well into the early 2010’s before being completely replaced by the DSD4
juliusgraham5485 - THE DSD 6.zip (101.8 KB)

8 cylinder

The first engine dreamed up by Darkshine’s was the DSD8.
There were a few simple rules that Darkshine’s put down that the engine must adhere to.
1-Crosspane crankshaft
2- SOHC 2valves
3-That fancy VVL shit
4-A minimum capacity of less than 5.8L
5-Alloy block and heads.

So with this in mind the Puncy Pom got to work.
What was created was a large stroke high capacity economical block and heads with a massive bore spacing allowing for a bore and stroke of up to 104mm/120mm.

The first every version of the DSD8 to go into production was the small bore 5.8L with a bore and stroke of 95.2mm/102mm. The alloy block is filled with high quality lightweight cast parts and a total static compression of 8.1:1. The VVL proved challenging and on this first engine was far from ideal.MPEfi was fitted as standard with a long runner intake manifold and high flow air filter and the engine is designed for 91oct fuel. A lazy engine total power is 292Hp/443Nm with a redline set at 5100RPM.The exhaust is DSD’s standard tuned tri-y headers suited to a small single exhaust system.

The second version of this engine was the 6.9L. This engine uses the highest quality lightweight forged steel parts in its block combined with a much hooter set of camshafts and a static compression of 9.5:1. A unique twin plenum chamber short ram intake manifold was matched to suit the more aggressive camshaft profile. The engine runs on 96oct fuel and is fitted with a set of our NASCAR headers modified for mass production. The engine produces 450hp/614Nm An was the most powerful mass produced engine at DSD from 2004-2006.

Windsor RPG

The Windsor as fitted to Griffen a joint venture between DSD and RPG
DSD heavily modified the 1964 engine to suit a new car buyer below is what we did.

Well we did our best with the old Windsor and have decided to pay for the rights to use your design.

We have however made some changes to suit the Griffen that will be it’s new home.

So we decided to use the stock OHV cast heads and block. Luckily there was a little bit of playing room as far as bore/stroke goes so naturally we went with the highest possible at 5452cc, we also 3/4 filled the block with engine grout to give a little more strength and the main caps are now a 6 bolt affair.

We filled the block with our own forged crankshaft with Mahle Rods and Pistons with a static compression of 9.6:1.

Then turning our attention to the heads we first raised the exhaust ports cleaned up the sharp turn radius for the exhaust valve and fitted a lightweight valve. On the intake side the intake manifold was match ported to the cylinder heads, a much larger valve was installed and we added length to the intake port (we had to weld up the old ports and start from scratch. We also modified the manifold to be a dry system with no coolant running through the manifold, also unique to the DSD version is an electric water pump. The ecu is a Holley unit and spark is now provided by a MSD crank wheel trigger coil on plug ignition system.

The camshaft is an off the shelf DSD unit (part no. 28528DSDC) and No fancy VVT was used. The only way that we could make this engine reliable and economical was to use turbocharging with units as always supplied by Precision Turbo’s. The turbo’s are tiny with large A/r ratios a small intercooler and very modest boost pressure. With the use of turbo’s DSD finally decided to invest in DI technology and the mighty Windsor is the first to benefit. What this means is an engine that develops economical effortless power while only requiring 91Oct fuel and in total we raised power by 81HP and torque by a staggering 132NM of torque while using 100% less fuel total power is 300Hp/517Nm

Two models are available the modern 300hp and a 1964 era tri-power 250hp
juliusgraham5485 - Windsor V8 (findRED19).zip (88.9 KB)

Limited Production and one off specials

THE 497ci R

Released with the E MODEL SARATOGA’s this was a high output engine with drag racing in mind. Only 437 of these were produced by DSD with only 201 E MODELS sold worldwide and the others used as replacement motors.
Utilizing the largest possible bore and stroke at 104mm/120mm a billet crankshaft was needed to allow for such high torque figures, attached to this are a set of lightweight pistons being swung by I beam steel Rods.12.1:1 static compression is achieved along with very hot cams and extreme VVL tuning. The fuel system is unique in that a twin 4bbl tuned ram setup is used with twin pro-system single barrel carburetors. DSD an NX also offer a complete nitro package to complement the carbs. A set of DSD 4-1 NASCAR headers are supplied and are tuned to be used without any other exhaust attachments. This engine must be run on e85 and will produce on average 639Hp/794Nm.


DSD’s first venture was to create an engine that could be used globally for motorsport with emphasis on the Australian v8 Supercars series and the Nascar Cup series.
Darkshine’s approached the Puncy Pom and the two sat down and think tank’d exactly what it is that they wished to create.

Rule one it must be a cross-plane v8 using a cast block and alloy OHV heads.

Rule two it must rev past 6800RPM

Rule three it must be able to be produced cheaply and quickly without sacrificing power or reliability.

So the two knew a heavy cast block was needed to be used in Nascar but it still had to be light enough to be easily swapped and changed from one vehicle to the next and it had to be very simple and easy to work with. With this in mind the two played around with different bore and stroke ratio’s to find the best compromise between rev’s and torque. Settling on a short stroke design with a max bore/stroke of 107.5mm/80.7mm.

The first variant that was looked at was the Nascar engine (known as a blue engine) and it had to be to spec. This meant a total capacity of 5860cc and a single 4bbl carburetor. The block was designed with this in mind and the bore/stroke currently sat at exactly 5.86L. Bottom end components were a no brainer with a forged crankshaft swinging I beam steel rods and lightweight pistons with a static compression of 9.8:1. The camshaft stats are hidden and a industry secret and DSD never released the actual numbers to the public.

A single Pro System 750Cfm 4bbl carb with restriction plate is used on top of an alloy single plane intake manifold. 98 octane race fuel is combined with high ignition timing and a fuel rate of 13.5:1. The heads are a Ford design and are carbon copies of 2v Cleveland heads that are high breathing and allow for the 8000RPM redline.

On the exhaust side we used the Nascar spec 4-1 headers and is optimized for a single exhaust system.
Total power is capped at 502hp/510Nm.

Available for $10000 shipped

The second variant known as a red motor was to be used in the Australian V8 supercars series and as such it also needed to be built within certain specs. A maximum capacity of 5000cc with EFI.
So Adam decided to drop the stroke even lower to allow for a total capacity of 4999cc. This was achieved by using a slightly smaller bore size of 106.9mm and a tiny stroke set at 69.7mm and a static compression of 10.9:1 (going any lower on the stroke will cause the piston speeds to be to great and we lost power).

Again camshaft specs have been kept quite what has been made public is the gorgeous ITB EFI system now flowing the fuel. The engine is setup for dual fuel usage and can run from e85 or 98 octane pump gas. The exhaust system is of a much higher tech than the Nascar headers and we chose to use a 8-2 design and the headers are optimized for a twin exhaust system.
Power is capped at 534hp/526Nm.

Available for $12500

The above to engine’s were only available to race teams direct from DSD HQ however Darkshine’s had the insight into offering crate engines to the aftermarket field and to export the engines to other manufacturers. Marcin decided in his wisdom to limit how many types of engines that darkshine’s and Adam could create. His brief to the two was simple.

“I don’t want you two fucking around in here for month’s on end chasing power or designing engines that are too complicated! We have our SARATOGA about to go into production and I really need Adam to do his real job. I will allow another 3 engines but that is it, these are not production engines it’s your bloody hobby. Get it done quick or I’l let the Big Arse shred your data!”

So Adam decided that the first should be an eco friendly engine, and as the two are trying to save money they used the NASCAR intake manifold with F.A.S.T centrepoint fuel injection. the rotating assembly was simplified with a cast crank rods and pistons filling the block to keep the cost down. This would be known as the green motor, with the largest stroke to bore ratio with 99mm bores and a stroke of 80mm. Static compression is set at 8.0:1 and a standard DSD cam profile is used.

The engine is designed around everyday off the shelf extractors and is suited to a single exhaust system. When run on the dyno these engines on average produce 259hp/358Nm.

Available through most parts stores and all DSD dealers for $6500

The second Crate engine was designed as a turn key hot rodders package, known as the chrome motor, designed to look good and cruise all night long. Adam settled on 5400cc with a 103.2mm bore and a 80.7mm stroke.
Cast items were settled on to fill the block as darkshine’s pointed out that most rodders want a reliable easy to work with engine and big power numbers don’t always sell engines.
A DSD torque king camshaft operates the whole shebang and providing fuel are a period set of holley 350Cfm two barrel carbs.

The exhaust is optimized for torque delivery and is ideally suited to a small twin exhaust system, she run’s on regular and power output averages 254hp/403Nm

Available through all good parts stores and DSD dealships for $7250

The final crate engine designed by DSD was to be a supercharger ready package.
To do this Turbochargers were stolen from the production line (DSD only uses turbochargers provided by Precision Turbo’s and supercharger units are provided by Procharger). To keep packaging small only 54mm turbochargers were used with moderate boost. The two ummed and ahhed over whether to actually sell the engine with the turbochargers fitted and in the end Darkshine famously decided

“we have them there why the fuck not”

So the boost friendly engine was called the orange engine. The engine utilizes all of the bore spacing available and share the same bore/stroke as the Nascar engine at 5860cc capacity.
The bottom end also uses a Nascar crank and rods with low compression forged pistons.
The camshaft is a DSD hot cam and just 6.0:1 compression ratios are achieved.
The engine requires 95 octane fuel and the exhaust like all twin turbo’s is optimized for a large twin exhaust setup. Power averages 409hp/533Nm

ONLY AVAILABLE BY SPECIAL ORDER from DSD dealerships for $11750
juliusgraham5485 - Crate Cleveland.zip (129.0 KB)

The DSD8 was made available for purchase in the Aftermarket sector including all factory engines. A total of 9 varients are available rangine from 5.8L-8.1L and 270hp-700hp

The first was a 500Hp/687Nm Big Bore version known as the White Knight motor.
All alloy block with top off the line bottom end components from Mahle. A total capacity of 497ci with VVL means a nice smooth torque curve. Unique to this engine is the use of replica DCoe carburetors, the engine is emission legal etc however great time was taken to make it look like an engine from the group A Australian touring cars. 95oct fuel again is required and a low static compression of 7.8:1 allows for supercharging if desired.

juliusgraham5485 - THE DSD V8.zip (149.9 KB)
Available in Australia and the U.S Only retailing at $12000

The next crate engine is completely different to what DSD would normally offer but we need to make money so here they are.
The DSD4 crate engine varients 3 in total. (Available from 2007 onward)
660cc of pure fun!
Designed to be somewhat competitive in the Japanese Kei car market the DSD4 is a little bit of engineering beauty.
This 40ci mini monster is in constant development and we are always trying for more power out of this little engine and we have also moved into P plater approved motorcycles with this engine.
An Alsi 5 valve inline 4 with low friction rotating assembly and a static compression of around 9.5:1 this was the first ever engine by DSD to use DI combined with VVT. The addition of a small custom made Procharger supercharger brings power up to the regulated 66Hp/86.7Nm on 91oct fuel. Ideally suited to the motorbike fraternity this engine is marketed at the cafe racer segment.

Available Worldwide (mostly to Indonesia) for $1650 AUD
juliusgraham5485 - The DSD 4.zip (113.6 KB)

The Latest Crate offering from DSD 3 Ford style Big Blocks ranging from 300hp -1500hp

The N.O.S 557ci SOHC v8

An all Alsi affair. Designed to used the bore spacing’s from a 385 series Ford and matching those specs to a FE Ford SOHC head.
This allowed for the extra cubic capacity to be used with much higher flowing heads.
Unlike the DSD8 the 557 heads have the valves in different positions and are much larger in diameter.
The block comes filled with Forged goodies supplied by Mahle/Bryant Racing.
optimized as a low compression high torque engine Turbo/Supercharging only requires a re-tune of the ecu.
Speaking of the Ecu it comes from Holley and is a self learning unit that can tune itself independently. All of the fuel injection equipment is mounted in the top mount throttle body for ease of maintenance. The 557 is designed as a modular engine platform in that it is designed to be used in multiple applications these include but are not limited to speed/ski boat engines, motor homes, light trucks and pick-up trucks, 4x4 and off coarse muscle cars and hotrods.
The engine does require 95oct fuel and comes with a new set off 4-1 headers suited for a large bore single exhaust. Total power is 500Hp/764Nm

juliusgraham5485 - Boss 429 DSD CRATE.zip (100.1 KB)

Available from all good part stores Worldwide retails for $5599

In 2016 a private collector @ramthecowy who formerly worked for Saab came to darkshines with a proposition.
He would build DSD it’s own modern high tech racecourse if DSD would purchase the few experimental engines that were in his possession.

The Nökken V8!

The story goes.
A team of mates that left Saab during the production of the second generation of the Sonnett got together to produce a V8 that could power sports cars, around the world. The official paperwork states
Year: 1973
Displacement: 2112cc/ 112 Kg’s
Fuel: 91 Octane Regular Mechanical Fuel Injection
Exhaust: 4-1 tuned exhaust
Loudness: somewhere between 42 and 45
Reliability 46
Cylinders: 8
Aspiration: Natural
Power: 120kW/161hp
Torque: Somewhere like 180/200Nm
Redline: 7000rpm
Price: Under ~$900 materials

Originally skeptical after receiving the engine along with the tooling blueprints Darkshine’s became very excited. Here were 10 experimental engine from Saab with documentation and the rights to build more!
So the original engines were interesting the mechanical injection worked but could be improved easily by switching to a carb. The 4 valve heads were well designed with minor short turn radius improvements made by DSD.
With only 10 original engines produced these remained with darkshines in his personal collection however two variants were made to suit the public a 1973 version and a 2016 version.

The original Nokken v8 if you want one you gotta pay big $1,000,000.00 AUD

The DSD Nokken V8, the re-made re-tooled nostalgia version available for $2499.99 AUD

The modern Crate engine uses EFI along with new forged bottom end components to achieve 212hp. These engine are ideally suited to small FWD setups or transverse AWD and are available for $3999.99 AUD

juliusgraham5485 - Nokken.zip (96.3 KB)

You’re an interesting character

I did tell you something worthwhile.

1 Like

So I’l take another approach what exactly are you trying to say/ask this engine in it’s first form in a B MODEL has economy equal to 8.01L/100KM and at the time most BMW’s were around 13L/100KM so I don’t get what you are trying to say. I am going to diplomatic about this because I do not enjoy insulting people

Well, I ran a 3 liter and a 3.5 liter BMW, A well cared, or a restored chugs 12. As soon as you lose the archaic cooling fan clutch and switch to m50 ingnition coils and do a remap the consumption drops by 2 liters. That is shifting it from 1970’s to 1990s tech. A remap into an eco setting would easily drop another liter and approximately 10 hp, which would almost perfectly line it up with your 3 liter turbo engine. At 9 l/100km and approx 195-200 hp at the crank. We are also talking about Model B which weighs full 330 kilos lighter, so that 1 liter/100km goes into that easily.

What I am asking then is, why are you not pushing about 250-300 hp with the same economy on a modern engine? Because as of now your car is a prime example of “if only we were to LS Swap”. If we go on stats alone, your car’s closest rival would be a BMW E30 with an M30B35 swap after the mods I’ve mentioned. Those level the 100kph mark in under 6 seconds, yours would have trouble competing with a 5 series. And once again, those are 1980’s cars we’re talking about.

Aha ok I can respond to this cheers for rewording it Squidhead sometimes I take thing the wrong way. The most important thing here to remember is the main market for my vehicles is Australia. Also the B Model is deliberately meant to be somewhat underwhelming as I want people to go for the v8 model not the 6. Here in Australia a BMW is not very sought after (compared to say a commodore or a falcon) therefor it’s more of a niche market here. The other thing to consider is the B model is not sold to the European market. As a 3.9L engine would come into higher insurance or registration costs DSD chose not to send it when the v8 is so much better. (I’m not certain of this as I don’t live in EU) I know that BMW make much better cars than what ford and holden did in Australia but 99% of bogans over here want the v8. DSD is not always after big horsepower numbers and we are not a hugely successful company.

So bottom line the car is designed to compete with large 4 door sedans like the ford falcon, Holden commodore, Toyota Aurion and the Mitsubishi Magna.

And there will be more to come from this engine yet (a 4 valve set off heads will come in 2009 as well as DI) I’m just finding a home for it.

I hope that makes sense and Thank you for taking an interest.[quote=“squidhead, post:13, topic:17080”]
if only we were to LS Swap"

Edit: that;s kinda exactly what I wanted from this model the car ppl buy when they can’t afford the v8 but will so in the future as an engine swap.

1 Like

just wanted to ask… is that a kei car engine as a crate engine???

also, i don’t think putting turbos on a small engine would benefit much in terms of power, but instead lose some fuel economy due to it’s extra weight overall.

yes a kei crate engine. there are other variants of this engine that are not turbo but will not be revealed until the irukandii. the 660cc turbo is the kei but there is a big block option of 770cc that is more economical

This post was flagged by the community and is temporarily hidden.

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You got polish Head of staff…

Let the kurwa power be with you! :smiley:
Also Airborne Automotive had Zmiański’s Curriculum Vitae as he candidated for place of head of staff also here :stuck_out_tongue:

Would you permit me to use this headlight trick from Cassowary Six?

of coarse sir all items on this page are available to be used

Why so conservative on the tires?

And why so heavy? I have no idea how the Aus market is like but I’m sure there’s nothing wrong with being abit more upmarket.